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Ujjaini

About Ujjain

Ujjain has great cultural and religious values. Ujjain is the city of famous king Vikramaditya and profound poet Kalidas. Ujjain holds rich cultural values and traditions at its hearts. The city has also great spiritual importance like Varanasi or other great spiritual places in India.

Ujjain is situated 190 km on west of state capital Bhopal. Ujjain is also known for its Simhastha Kumbha Parva. It is also called the Kumbha Mela. Ujjain, the city of Mahakal, is known for its profound visiting places like, Ujjain Mahakal (Mahakaleshwar) Temple and Shri Mahakaleshwar Jyotirling.

According to Adi Purana Ujjain is the most sacred city on the earth. The city Ujjain has been a seat of learning and education for all disciplines of knowledge that had flourished from time immemorial.

Ujjain is well-connected by major mean of transportation like trains, airways and roads. The nearest airport is Indore airport. Ujjain is well-connected with other part of Madhya Pradesh. Ujjain is connected to Indore by SH-27 and SH-18 Dewas, Badnawar passes through it. There are also many beautiful places near Ujjain to visit.

History Of Ujjain

The Most important thing about Ujjain is tourism in Ujjain. Ujjain has gained its especial place in history because of it has witnessed the most important historical events.

IThe earliest references to the city, as Ujjayani, are from the time of the Buddha, when it was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom. Since the 4th century B.C. the city has marked the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography. It is also reputed to have been the residence of Ashoka (who subsequently became the emperor), when he was the viceroy of the western provinces of the Mauryan empire.

In the Post-Mauryan period, the city was ruled by the Sungas and the Satavahanas consecutively. It was contested for a period between the Satavahanas and the Ror Sakas (devotees of Shakumbari), known as Western Satraps; however, following the end of the Satavahana dynasty, the city was retained by the Rors from the 2nd to the 4th century CE. Ujjain is mentioned as the city of Ozene in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, an antique Greek description of sea ports and trade centers in the western Indian Ocean. Following the enthroning of the Gupta dynasty, the city soon became an important seat in the annals of that empire. Ujjain is considered to be the traditional capital of King Chandragupta II, also known as Vikramaditya, the legendary emperor, ruled the city with his famous Navratnas (nine jewels) including Kalidasa, Shanku, Dhanvantari, Betalbhatta, Varruchi, Varahmihir, Kshapdak, Ghatkarpar and Amar Singh who epitomised different branches of knowledge.

In the 6th and 7th centuries, Ujjain was a major centre of mathematical and astronomical research. The famous mathematicians who worked there included: Brahmagupta, whose book Brahmasphutasiddhanta was responsible for spreading the use of zero, negative numbers and the positional number system to Arabia and Cambodia; Varahamihira, who was the first to discover many trigonometric identities; and Bhaskaracharya, or Bhaskara II, whose book Lilavati broke new ground in many areas of mathematics.

Ujjain was invaded by the forces of the Delhi Sultanate led by Iltutmish in 1235, suffering widespread destruction and systematic desecration of temples. Under the Mughal emperor Akbar it became the capital of Malwa. During the last half of the 18th century Ujjain was the headquarters of the Maratha leader Scindia. The Scindias later established themselves at Gwalior, and Ujjain remained part of Gwalior state until Indian Independence in 1947. Gwalior state became a princely state of the British Raj after the Maratha defeat in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and Gwalior, Ujjain, and the neighboring princely states were made a part of the Central India Agency. After Indian independence, the Scindia ruler of Gwalior acceded to the Indian Union, and Ujjain became part of the Madhya Bharat state. In 1956 Madhya Bharat was merged into the Madhya Pradesh state.

With its greatest cultural and religious history Ujjain is one of the best places of Madhya Pradesh tourism. Now, Ujjain has greater historical and religious value.

Visiting Place in Ujjain

Mahakaleshwar Temple

Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga is situated beneath ground level (Garbhagriha) in the core temple. The idol of Mahakaleshwar is known to be dakshinamurti, fronting the south. This is a unique feature upheld by tantric customs to be found only in Mahakaleshwar among the 12 Jyotirlingas. Due to these deliberations, worship of Shri Mahakal with vedic mantras proves productive for the devotee. The idol of Omkareshwar Shiva is sanctified in the sanctum above the Mahakal shrine. The images of Ganesh, Parvati and Kartikeya are installed in the west, north and east of the sanctum. To the south is the image of Nandi. The idol of Nagchandreshwar on the third storey is open for darshan only on the day of Nagpanchmi. Any devotee who visits for Ujjain Darshan must visits this temple and it is among one of the most visited Ujjain temples.

Harsiddhi Temple

The Harsiddhi temple is one of the 52 Shakti Peeths situated all over India. According to legend, Shiva married Sati, the daughter of Daksha, a Prajapati who was proud of his position and disliked his ascetic son-in-law. In an effort to put his son-in-law in his place, Daksha organized a yagna and deliberately did not invite Shiva. Hearing of the grand yagna, sati visited it by herself, ignoring her husband's advice, and, furious with her father for thus deliberately ignoring her husband, cast herself into the flames lit for the yagna. Her act led to Shiva's ganas going berserk with rage, and Shiva himself arriving at the scene and dancing the Tandava (the angry dance) with sati's body in his arms. While Shiva was later calmed down and amends made, it is believed that parts of Sati's body fell on earth as He danced, and each of these (totaling 52 in number) are revered as Shakti Peeths. It is among the list of places to visit at Ujjain for most of devotees.

Kal Bhairav Temple

The Shaivites worship eight Bhairavas and the Kal Bhairava is the most important. It is thought that the temple of Kal Bhairava has been erected by the King Bhadrasen. This was done at the banks of the river Shipra, whose iridescent view rejuvenates the traveler and sanctifies him of his sins. The Kapalika and the Aghora sects usually worship Kal Bhairava. The temple of Kal Bhairava is therefore very important to them. Liquor is offered to the lord as a part of the worship and the temple exhibits beautiful Malwa style of architecture. The paintings on the wall of the temple are however only visible in part. It is one of the best places to visit in Ujjain city.

Gopal Temple

Gopal temple at Ujjain is dedicated to Lord Krishna in blue form. It is also known as Dwarikadhish Temple. Lord Krishna is the lover of milkmaids, the celestial herdsman and the great incarnation of Preserver of the Universe-God Vishnu. Gopal temple was constructed by Bayajibai Shinde, the queen of Maharajah Daulat Rao Shinde, in the 19th century. The steeple structure in Marble proves the fantabulous example of the architecture of Maratha. There is an outstanding statue of God Krishna in silver form with the height of 2 feet. The idol of God Krishna is placed on a marble-inlaid altar with the silver-plated doors. It is among the best tourism places Ujjain.

ISKCON Temple

The International Society of Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna Movement, was founded in 1966 by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ISKCON is a worldwide association of devotees of Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; its members consist of 10,000 temple devotees and 250,000 congregational devotees. Sri Sri Radha Madan Mohan Temple, of the ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) or Hare Krishna Movement is newest on the map of Ujjain. Its beautiful idols and architect is a major attraction for tourists. A well maintained goshala is present just behind the temple. The ISKCON temple is situated 3 km from railway station, on Dewas road. It is one of the divine places near Ujjain to visit and to experience spirituality in the air.

Chintamani Ganesh Temple

The temple is built across the Shipra on the Fatehabad railway line. The Ganesh idol enshrined here is supposed to be swayambhu - born of itself. The temple itself is believed to be of considerable antiquity. Riddhi and Siddhi, the consorts of Ganesha, are seated on either side of Ganesha. The artistically carved pillars in the assembly hall date back to the Paramara period. Worshippers throng to this temple because the deity here is traditionally known as Chintaharan Ganesh meaning "the assurer of freedom from worldly anxieties. Everyone should visit the place while come for Madhya Pradesh tourism.

Sandeepani Ashram

The fact that ancient Ujjain apart from its political and religious importance, enjoyed the reputation of being a great seat of learning as early as the Mahabharata period is borne out by the fact that, Lord Krishna and Sudama received regular instruction in the ashram of Rishi Sandipani. It is one of the prehistoric and known Ashram in Ujjain. The area near the ashram is known as Ankapata, popularly believed to have been the place used by Lord Krishna for washing his writing tablet. The numerals 1 to 100 found on a stone are believed to have been engraved by Guru Sandipani.

Mangalnath

Mangalnath temple is located on the bank of river Shipra. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, Mangalnath Temple is a greatly respected holy place situated in Ujjain. It is amongst the places to visit at Ujjain, when people plan to have Madhya Pradesh tourism. According to the Matsya Purana it is known as the birth place of Mars. Far away from the flurry of the city life, Mangalnath Temple is placed on a serene surroundings and it overlooks the vast stretch of water in the majestic Shipra River. The temple is situated at the place where the first meridian is said to pass the earth and so this place was a renowned spot for a clear view of the planet and consequently it turned to be an apt place for astronomical studies.

Kaliadeh Palace

The Kaliadeh Palace is located on the banks of the River Shipra and is the most visited sites of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is like an isle that is separated by a small stretch of water that makes it look more elegant. This island-like site immediately conjures up the natural beauty of ancient Ujjain which poets down the ages have waxed lyrical. The glorious landscape of the flowing river on both sides of the palace and the man-made tanks and channels, with water gurgling through them, provide a spectacular backdrop to the imposing building. The Avanti-mahatmya of Skanda Purana has recorded a description of the Sun temple and two tanks, The Surya Kunda and the Brahma Kunda. Remains of old temple are scattered all around. A fragmented inscription of this place records building of the palace in 1458 AD, in the time of Mahmud Khilji. The central dome of the palace is a beautiful example of Persian architecture. It is one of the excellent Ujjain places to see while Ujjain travel.

Bhartrihari Caves

These caves are situated just above the bank of the Shipra near the temple of Gadkalika. According to popular tradition, this is the spot where the great Sanskrit Poet Bhartrihari, who is said to have been the step brother of Vikramaditya, lived and meditated after renouncing worldly life. It teaches us how to enhance the spiritual development place in our lives. He is believed to have been a great scholar and poet and a great spiritual yogi. His famous works, Shringarshatak, Vairagyashatak, and Nitishatak, are known for the exquisite use of the Sanskrit meter. These caves are situated just above the bank of the Shipra near the temple of Gadkalika.

Pir Matsyendranath

The Hindus and the Muslims of Ujjain equally revere an exceptionally attractive shrine on the banks of the Shipra, Pir Matsyendranath. Excavations at this site have revealed some antiques, which date back to the 6th and 7th century BC. Though this shrine is not a marvel in terms of architecture, its simple white structure with a dome flanked by small minarets on four sides provides a serene appeal to the surroundings. This place is known as the tomb of Matsyendra Nath, the famous preceptor of Nath sect. An exquisite and beautiful shrine revered by both Muslims and Hindus lies on the Shipra river banks, namely Pir Matsyendranath and is dedicated to the great spiritual leader and sage, Matsyendra.

Ram Ghat

Ram Ghat, Ujjain is legendary for its Kumbhmela. Ujjain is taken into account the Greenwich of India due for the fact the first meridian of longitude passes through it. According for the Indian astronomers, that the Tropic of Cancer passes through the picturesque city of Ujjain. Ram Ghat, located near the Harsiddhi Temple in Ujjain is famous for its Kumbh Mela. Kumbh Mela is held in every 12 years. Ram Mandir Ghat, Ujjain is the most ancient bathing ghat in connection with the Kumbh celebrations. There are a number of devotees can be seen on ghat during Ujjain simhastha. It is amongst the liked tourist places in Ujjain by Indians as well as foreigners.

Triveni Ghat

The temple of Navagraha, the nine planets, on the Triveni ghat of Shipra is a prominent center of attraction for the pilgrims. There is a confluence of Khan River near Triveni ghat on the Shipra. Mythological sanctity of the invisible river Saraswati, associated with the story of Triveni-sangam, is attributed to this place also. Presently, the Khan River, known with different names around Indore, has been blocked for irrigation in the upstream. Its water is not worth welcoming into the Shipra. People love to visit this place while their Ujjain Darshan.